شناسه مطلب صحیفه
نمایش نسخه چاپی

Speech [Analysis of the Khordad 15 uprising; performance of the government and the mission of the `ulama' and the clergy]

A`zam Mosque, Qum
Imam Khomeini's release from prison
Analysis of the Khordad 15 uprising; performance of the government and the mission of the `ulama' and the clergy
`Ulama', clergymen, merchants, students and people from other sectors of society
جلد ۱ صحیفه امام خمینی (ره)، از صفحه ۲۹۱ تا صفحه ۳۱۵
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful" I take refuge in God from the accursed Satan
We belong to God and to Him we shall return."

Sign of civilization, the mass murder of Khordad 15!

(The audience weeps bitterly) I have never felt so weak and incapable in speech before; I feel quite incompetent today. I am unable to express the sadness I feel for the general state of Islam and in particular for the state of Iran, as well as for the events which took place during the course of this ill-fated year «1» such as the storming of the centers of learning and the affair of Khordad 15. It was only when my imprisonment turned into detention that the outside news reached me and I became aware of what had occurred on Khordad 15.
God knows how devastated I was on learning of this incident (the audience weeps bitterly). Now that I have returned from my detention in Qaytariyyeh, I see young children without fathers (the audience weeps), mothers who have lost their children, women who have lost their brothers and people with missing limbs( the weeping continues ). Much despondency prevails. Indeed, this is the imprint of their" civilization" and our" reaction". It is a pity our voice does not reach the outside world. It is a pity that the sound of weeping of these bereaved mothers does not reach the outside world (the audience weeps intensely).

Sinister propaganda against the clergy

They introduce us as traditionalists, as reactionaries; they regard the `ulama' of Islam as" black reaction". Those heavily-subsidized foreign newspapers which have set out to ruin us, «2» introduce us abroad as anti-reformists, as those opposed to modernization. «3» Akhounds are presented as those who travel on donkeys and who argue that they don't want electricity nor do they need airplanes. It is said that they want to return to the Dark Ages, that they are reactionaries. In fact it is this dark period brought about by you (the Shah) in this country to which the akhounds are opposed. Is this traditionalism? The virtuous `ulama' oppose these beatings and murders, and this autocracy, dictatorship and despotism. Do you call this traditionalism? It was the `ulama' of Islam who, at the dawn of Constitutionalism, «4» fought against the evils of despotism and procured freedom for the nation. They ordained laws which were in the interest of Islam and benefited the nation and which enhanced the country's independence, for they were Islamic laws. They ordained these laws with the blood that they sacrificed, the burdens that they bore and the trials that they endured. Are these akhounds reactionaries?
Today also, the clergy is rising up in revolt; it is embarking upon a movement and in following the clergy the nation too is rising up in revolt. Now, the Islamic nations are awakened, they are engaged in revolution. The clergy wants the laws of Islam to be implemented. Is this reactionary?! «5» Inviting others to abide by the holy laws of Islam, these divine laws for which we undergo so much hardship and bear so many insults; is this in fact reaction? Is God, the Blessed and Exalted, a reactionary?! The virtuous( archangel )Gabriel, the mediator of divine revelation, is he a reactionary?! Is the Holy Prophet a reactionary?! Are the exemplary Imams reactionaries?! From the advent of Islam it has been the sole function of the `ulama', those who themselves possess nothing, to convey the laws of Islam- the divinely-revealed laws- to the people. Is it reactionary to convey these holy laws?

Islam approves true freedom

If you truly believe in the precepts of Islam then this is what you should believe in: Islam has afforded man freedom and made him the master of his possessions, his family and his own self. In fact Islam demands man's freedom and self-determination. In Islam man is free to choose where he lives, what he eats and drinks and how he conducts his everyday life, as long as the holy laws are not breached. It is the law of Islam which affords one, whose home has been attacked, the right to kill the attacker. This is the extent to which Islam values freedom. So can Islam be described as `black reaction'? The `ulama' do not speak for themselves, but merely quote God's Prophet, who in turn quotes the Almighty Lord. Thus, if we are reactionaries then the Holy Prophet must be a reactionary too. If you regard us, who merely repeat the words of God and His Prophet, as traditionalists- as that foolish man persistently insists on calling us- then you consider the Holy Prophet a traditionalist too! The Devil takes this `civilized' thinking!
If however, you have faith in Islam and its laws- Islam which is the source of all freedom, dignity, glory, self-determination, and independence- and if we are the followers of Islam, then you have to accept that these are the precepts of Islam. In what way can they be said to be reactionary? Exactly what is it about the precepts of Islam that these gentlemen regard as black reaction? Why not come and discuss this issue with us? It really isn't right for you «6» to make speeches here and there saying," We condemn traditionalism'' and so on and to persist in your swaggering. Why not come forward and say that you believe what the Prophet has said to constitute black reaction, so that we may examine the validity of your claim and may prove that to the contrary it is not reaction?

Abide by the law

We say:" Don't be the slave of others." We want you to be honorable and dignified. We suggest sir, that as a Muslim government and as the so-called ruling body of the Muslims, you should be reverent, noble and great. You are to safeguard independence and to be your own master. At whichever meeting you attend you request more financial assistance. «7» Don't degrade yourself for the sake of begging for a few dollars. These are in fact the things that we oppose. If this is reaction then yes we are reactionaries; and if that is what being civilized is, then you are undoubtedly civilized. If you believe in the laws of Islam then they are as we have explained and you are fully aware of them. And if you say you prefer to rely on the constitutional law instead, then that too has given the right of freedom to people, be it with regard to their abode, their occupation, their wealth or their souls; and it in fact prohibits coercion. It isn't that you don't accept the constitutional law because you do; although even then some time ago you murmured something about it being fifty-years-old and so on. What nonsense! How can a constitution which argues for the freedom of the people and the press be criticized for being `fifty-years-old'? All we are saying is that you should act according to the law. Let us take a good look at the constitutional law; you send your representative and we shall send ours. O you, who lay claim to being law-abiding, democratic, reformist and progressive, let us examine the constitutional law. You'll see that if you act according to this law then we won't say anything more. Abide by the Supplementary Constitutional Laws which were achieved through the `ulama' sacrificing lives and delivering nations from captivity. The constitutional law grants freedom of the press; but are you prepared to free it? Is it we, the ones who say allow the constitutional law to be implemented, grant the press freedom and permit the press to enjoy freedom of expression, who is the reactionary? The press may well be corrupt, but in spite of all their malice, they still would prefer not to poison people's minds to the extent to which you force them.

Disgrace of the government

Now you, gentlemen and people of Iran, you must have seen the editorial of the Ittila`at on Tuesday April 7 [Farvardin 18]. You read about the plans they had intended to carry out and the one which they now have in mind. «8» They saw that whatever move they made backfired. They used force, intimidation and threats; they brought about the episode of Khordad 15; they destroyed the Faydiyyah and Talibiyyah madrasahs; «9» they affronted the `ulama'; they banished, deported, imprisoned, and much more. Not only did things go wrong, but they went so very wrong that even he «10» came to know about them. Indeed everyone knew about them. Moreover, objections raised by the outside world put the regime in a very embarrassing position. «11» The events of Khordad 15 had truly disgraced the government. We hadn't wished for them to be so disgraced, but the shame brought about by the events of that day was so deep that it irrevocably stained this country. This affair will be recorded in history. Even some members of the regime have themselves admitted what a disgrace Khordad 15 was and I too say this. But they failed to say why, so I will now do so: it was a disgrace because they had actually purchased the machine guns, tanks and bullets that they fired at the poor Iranian people with the wealth of this very same nation. They trampled this poor nation underfoot. Could anything be more disgraceful than this? Tell us exactly what these poor victims had done to deserve this? What could they possibly have done?

Who is the reactionary?

We only gave you a piece of advice; surely it didn't warrant such a reaction. Our argument is quite logical. We merely say that we have laws and that they should be implemented. Is it that you don't recognize the constitutional law? If so, then get your governmental employee «12» to go to the Majlis and announce that this is the case so that you can then return to primitive times if that's what you really want. Are we, the ones who ask for the implementation of the constitutional law, reactionaries, or you, who imprison people and order for their exile? Your prison cells are packed with prisoners, with people of distinction, religious people, `ulama', professors; and places such as Bandar `Abbas are full of exiles whose only crime was to have said," We don't want to be slaves; we don't want to be the captives of imperialism."
What they said of us lately? Are you reactionaries as we say that you have to abide by the Constitution? Lay down the Constitution and let all of us abide by it; you accepted it. We say, observe the religion( religious precepts ); you say that the Holy Prophet is a reactionary( we seek refuge in God ). You do not speak literally; it means so. You do acknowledge the Constitution, yet at that time they used to utter that it is fifty-years old, so on and so forth. It is a constitution that has more than the affair of fifty years ago- a constitution that stipulates that the nations should be free; that the people of Iran should be free; that press should be free; that no one has the right to hinder others to write.

Slandering the clergy

You no doubt read in the Ittila'at newspaper of Tuesday April 18 (Farvardin 29):" What welcome news it is that the clerical dignitaries have reached an agreement with the government concerning the Shah-People Revolution"- of course the same was written in other papers but this particular newspaper has a wider readership. Following this, some people who went to Tehran to voice objection requested that this clergyman be identified, «13» saying:" Is the person in question Khomeini? Please tell us so that we might execrate him; or is it perhaps another `alim of Islam? Come now, indicate who it is!" Some of our high-ranking `ulama' are with us here today, may God preserve them (the audience cries" Amen"). Others are to be found in Tehran, Mashhad, Najaf and in other Muslim lands. May God praise them all (the audience cries Amen). Now then, these `ulama' of whom you speak, do they exist out in space? Well if not, why do you not name those who have secretly made a deal with you? Name them if you dare. Tell us, was it Khomeini who made concessions while in prison? He had no right whatsoever to do something so contrary to Islam. How can Khomeini compromise with the cause of oppression? It would be damned wrong of him to do so. Could he do other than to preserve the dignity of Islam while he was in prison?- which is in fact what he did. Could Khomeini and others like him possibly bring themselves to say something which was to the detriment of Islam: this Islam for which the Holy Prophet and the Immaculate Imams( `a )labored so hard and for which the `ulama' have exerted so much effort? Indeed if Khomeini actually did do such a thing, then he would be cast out from the society.

The plot to introduce the `ulama' and the clergymen

They have hatched a plot which is to introduce the `ulama' of Islam to the people as like them. They are ostracized by the society, and they like us also to be ostracized. The society does not accept them, and they like it (the society) also to say that it does not accept us. Through this sinister plot they like us to be hated by the society What a calamity! Could I tell the corruptions of this country to this Majlis, its two, four chambers? Today, I am not also feeling well. Last night I slept only a little. Nevertheless, well, a general issue must be stated. Don't we have any right to defend ourselves?

Helplessness of the editor-in-chief of Ittila`at

These same people visited the editor-in-chief of the Ittila`at «14» and asked him:" Who actually told you of this matter concerning the alleged concessions made by a clergyman? Let us know who this treacherous «15» spy is who has accepted your terms and has compromised against the interests of Islam." Initially the poor wretch said in embarrassment that he hadn't been there at the time. Then, after giving a detailed account to absolve himself from the matter, an account which is far too lengthy to recount here today, he added:" This is the article which I had prepared for that day." He then showed it to those present and continued:" But some officials brought several attached sheets to me and told me that I must print those instead. It was an order; what could I do?" I will tell him what he can do. If the editor-in-chief of Ittila`at is someone who truly regrets such obtrusions, then luckily, being financially comfortable and not in need as such, he can quit journalism and become a minister. Fortunately, it is the done thing here( the audience laughs ); so you too become a minister or a Member of Parliament or something. Of course you won't get the people's vote, but you can still be appointed to the office. It's not necessary for people to favor this appointment, since they have no mandatory rights anyway. No, there's no doubt that they will appoint you as a Member of Parliament, or they will nominate you as a senator. «16» So if you genuinely deplore these obtrusions, then why not quit journalism and find a better occupation? It must also be said however, that I actually sent a message to this editor-in-chief telling him to repudiate the article in question and from what I was told last night, he had said that he could no longer show his face to the nation or the clergy and that he would come up with an article which would refute the former one. Now, is it we who are reactionary or you?

Sheer lie

You are mistaken to lay such a lie at our door as if we are deceased. Indeed, praise be to God, we have a large number of `ulama'. We have both distinguished and pre-eminent maraji`; we have many great philosophers and scholars of the religious sciences in theological centers and throughout the land. They will not just sit by while someone writes such a great lie in one of the popular newspapers stating," Thank goodness they have compromised". However, even if we scream and cry out, they will ensure that our voices are not heard. Now you, «17» the one who either yesterday or last night declared that you will curb traditionalism, are not your censoring of and obtruding upon the press in itself a form of traditionalism? And don't claim that we are falsely accusing you because we have evidence of your actions. This is no lie. The very article which you ordered to be printed and which you later refused to allow to be refuted, now lies in the editor-in-chief's office of the Ittila`at newspaper.

I am not afraid and have never been afraid

All we are asking is that you abide by the constitutional law. If you have a faith then act according to its ordinances; and if you regard religion as reaction then at least act according to the constitutional law instead. Allow freedom of the pen. This poor editor-in-chief was truly in a wretched state. I sent word to him that I am not one of those who make empty demands. No indeed, I follow my demands up. God forbid, but if I ever feel that I have to say something to defend the interests of Islam, then I shall surely say it and follow it through without fear. I swear by God that I have never experienced fear (an outburst of emotion from the crowd). Even on that day when they were taking me away, it was they who were frightened, whereby I comforted them by telling them not to be afraid (the audience laughs).
Don't you see that if we fear while striving for the goals of Islam then we in fact have no faith. These are the goals for which the prophets made unrelenting efforts and for which great men of Islam gave their lives. In striving for these goals the noble `ulama' of Islam have been set on fire; they have lost their lives, been imprisoned and exiled and have served long sentences. Hence, if we fear for ourselves more than we are concerned about the interests of Islam then we cannot be said to have faith. Would anyone with faith be afraid to leave this world? In fact if we really believe in the afterlife then we should pray to be killed in the path of God and so join the martyrs. One who has no faith in the afterlife should fear, not us. We have been assured a good place (in the next life) by our Lord, the Exalted, the Merciful, as long as we live according to His religion; and we hope and believe that this is in fact what we are doing. Of what should we be afraid? Why should we fear you? The most you could possibly do would be to execute us, in which case our life of ease would then commence. We would leave all these iniquities behind us; we would be relieved of all the pains and anguish of this life. Our beloved master (Imam `Ali) has said:" I swear by God that Abou Talib's son (Imam `Ali himself) is as fond of death as a suckling baby is fond of its mother's breast." «18» Of course we cannot make such a claim, but nevertheless we are his followers. To fear death is to have no faith in the hereafter.

They made a mistake in releasing me

Are we, who say the press must be free, traditionalists, while those who use force to demand that certain things be reported are progressivists? Unfortunately, however, whereas our voice doesn't go beyond these four walls, their voice reaches as far as America as well as the other countries from whence they obtain their dollars. They spend the wealth of this nation on the foreign press- a press which writes articles disparaging our clergy, Islam, our nation, and everything we have. I used to read these stories when I was in captivity. What a blunder they made in releasing me. They certainly made a grave mistake. In fact I told them while I was there that if they intended to continue with their scheming then it was best for them that I remained imprisoned, for my release would only create further unrest. Now I am telling them again, we are not reactionaries in the sense that you mean. Islam does not disapprove of the fruits of civilization and neither do we.

Islam as the forerunner of independence and power

Islam would like nothing more than for you to be in command over all of the world powers for after all it was Islam that drew its sword and conquered half or even more than half of the globe. Can this Islam be called reactionary? Islam once governed all of these countries that you are now governed by «19» The sheer fact that those countries which implemented the commandments of Islam (of course this only applies to one or two Muslim governments, the rest never having really implemented Islamic precepts) considered themselves to be carrying the banner of Islam and to be identified with it; and the very fact that they implemented Islamic principles, even if only in appearance, meant that they were able to achieve such power and might that an army of a mere twenty-odd thousand Arabs succeeded in trampling such a vast country as Iran underfoot. This it did in order to make human beings out of its inhabitants and to bring civilization to the country, which indeed it succeeded in doing. The lofty thoughts held by the `ulama' and maraji` in our country are all due to the light of Islam. They all come from Islam. The rotten and traditionalistic minds of this regime however, are the cause of the nation's servitude to all; offering this country lock, stock and barrel to foreigners and thus giving the country's entire wealth to others. This is true reaction. Shame on it!

The Ittila`at editor-in-chief to abide (by his promise)

The Prime Minister sent someone to me yesterday who said:" We ask for your forgiveness, there has been a mistake. Please do your best to ensure no further unrest breaks out and we shall do as you ask," thereby uttering the usual rhetoric. In reply I said:" The Ittila`at newspaper maintains that it is not to blame for the article, but that it is in fact your fault; and you claim that you regret your past behavior. Therefore, you must promise that such things won't reoccur, because if they do then the consequences will be far worse next time. Don't persist in calling us reactionaries, for if you do we have no choice but to expand on the issue in order to determine who the real reactionaries are, the dear `ulama' of Islam who ask that you don't oppress the people so, or yourselves."

Starvation and humiliation in the" progressive" country

We were deeply distressed by the winter just passed, when lethally cold weather struck Isfahan, Hamedan, Tehran, Qum and elsewhere; but did you show any consideration or make any arrangements for those poor victims in this our" developed" society? I was told that in Hamedan more than two thousand people died due to cold weather which reached forty-three degrees below zero. O you who have caused our country to" develop", did you do anything for these people? We are not against development, in fact we truly want you to be modern, but please do something for these poor wretches. Must they suffer both from the pain of starvation and the pain of humiliation? Must they both walk barefoot and be struck on the head too? All we say is don't do this. Is it reactionary to say don't suppress people so; don't beat or insult them so; or to ask that you act according to either Islamic law or the constitutional law? You, however, the agents of despotism, who use force, intimidation, banditry and whatever other practices you choose against these people; you who violate the constitutional law and totally disregard Islamic ordinances, are you the progressivists?

Islamic university of the gentlemen!

It's preposterous I know, but they have decided to establish an Islamic university. «20» Apparently they have allocated a budget of a few million tumans for this purpose. Well, those of you responsible for this scheme, if you really are sympathetic toward Islam then why do you demolish our university; yes look, the one standing over there? If you have genuinely reached the conclusion that Islam, Islamic precepts and the `ulama' of Islam must remain, then although it's true we don't expect any goodwill from you, at least don't subject us to your malevolence. Just give us a chance to render you a service. Fortunately, we don't receive a penny from the national budget. Instead we have to endure poverty and tolerate your mean treatment of us. Whoever so wishes is free to witness for himself the living conditions of these students of the religious sciences. Go and see how they have lived both before and after their rooms were plundered. What did these agents of the regime want to plunder; an old rug maybe or perhaps a broken samovar? Are these what they were after? God knows this is not the case. Their intention was to intimidate the religious students. Why not go and see our madrasahs and homes for yourselves? We have nothing to hide. Our entire annual budget which consists of money donated to us with the utmost sincerity by these indigent people for the safeguarding of Islamic principles, doesn't amount to the money spent on even one of the parties given by you in honor of a foreign guest. If our entire annual budget can be said to equal the cost of one of your parties, then you are entitled to say:" Fie to you reactionaries!"

Theclergy is after the interests of the nation and country

We argue that you ought not to squander so much of this country's budget. What is the point in holding so many parties? Is it reactionary of us to suggest that you be your own master and don't beg from people so much or that you don't incur unnecessary expenditure in the first place which indeed brings about the need to beg? If you come to believe in the precepts of Islam, all of us, the whole nation, will be behind you. Have we ever bribed this nation to love and support us to the extent that they do? No, in fact they have realized that all of us, the clergy, the great maraji`, this religious student Khomeini, we all feel affection for them and seek their interests and the interests of the country and nation. People truly believe this. This belief sits firmly in their hearts; and man generally follows his heart. That is why they support us.

Heed my advice

Why don't you begin to heed my advice? Just as I told those who were sent by the regime to speak to me, so too I am now telling you that you must change the way you tackle things. You saw that by inflicting pain, by beating, torturing, imprisoning, exiling and throwing insults, nothing was achieved. Indeed you saw that the nation deeply resents such behavior; and that you cannot suppress a nation for ever. You witnessed all this for yourselves so why not change your policy somewhat and see what happens? Why, you are the ones who claim to be rational! So try out a new approach for a change and show people a little benevolence, a little courtesy. See here, the government actually belongs to the people. The national budget comes from the people's pockets. You are a servant of the people and governments are their attendants. Don't continually assert that you are the people's servant, while in practice you hit the people on the head; don't trample these poor people underfoot. You obtain your means of livelihood from the nation's budget, and you enjoy a comfortable life. Very well let's regard that as a gift to you. You live in whatever manner you want and can have whatever you desire. The kind of life led by these people is inconceivable; you couldn't possibly imagine how they live. We still have difficulty in comprehending how an airplane can actually make a return journey from here to Holland in order to bring flowers for a party. I have heard that the rent for this airplane has been three hundred thousand tumans. This is something widely discussed and well-known, but we still find it hard to grasp. Even so, let us again look upon all of this as a gift to you. In fact it is from the wealth of this nation that you feed; from the wage of this laborer and this farmer. If, as you maintain, you feel for the laborers and farmers then why not throw a few crumbs to the poor? With as little as one million tumans almost everyone could have been saved from the bitter cold of last winter; after all one million tumans is a mere drop in the ocean for you. Therefore share out some of the money you have appropriated from the nation amongst these poor people. With a little help they could be active and earn themselves an honorable living. Such actions would safeguard your future. Not only would you not meet with opposition, but the people would warm to you. Then, just as I am sitting here talking and people are listening and trusting in what I say, so too, people will find confidence in what you have to say. As things stand however, no one has faith in you. Even if you were to say two times two is four, people would say that this is too obvious to be true.

The clergymen oppose the violation of Islam and the law

Someone approached me and apologized for the wrongdoings of the previous government. He thanked God that this government had eventually been dissolved; and he claimed that by comparison the members of the latest government were in fact religious people whose fathers had mostly been clergymen. In reply I said:" We were neither the enemy of that government, nor have we signed a contract of fraternity with this government. It is your deeds with which we are concerned and which we monitor. If you repeat the deeds of your predecessors then we shall relentlessly oppose you as we did them, for we are the same as we were before. Your names too will be blackened as were theirs. Nevertheless, if you change your attitude, then we are all Muslims and brothers together. Not only will we not oppose you, but we will lend you our support. I told you before and I will tell you again, you must bow in humility before Islamic precepts, that is, if you really are the Muslims that you claim to be. Yes, you must submit to the precepts of Islam and of course abrogate those laws which contradict them." Have we ever argued that there should not be a government? No indeed, but what we do say is that the government must obey the laws of Islam, or if not, then at least the laws of the Constitution. Neither have we ever advocated living the kind of life lived thousands of years ago, when people made their homes in caves.
Which clergyman has ever said such a thing? Just name one clergyman who maintains that we are hostile to the signs of civilization.

Turning the signs of civilization into corruption

When such signs arrived in this country, you tampered with them while in their unadulterated form, thereby transforming them into something unacceptable and prohibited according to Islam. Our radio service for example, is its purpose really that for which it is used here in Iran? Similarly, with regard to the television, should it be abused as it is here in Iran? Indeed, these modern devices are in fact also utilized by civilized countries in the same way as they are utilized here. The education and training received in this country is truly bad. Our educational system «21» is not capable of answering the needs of this country. It is incapable of rearing strong athletic youths who would confront the forces of imperialism, clench their fists, be killed and rescue the nation. No, our system of education is incapable of this. They undermine people's resolve with this situation that they have brought about and by the kind of programs broadcast by our radio, television, etc. Our newspapers, our magazines, our books, in fact our entire publications, are in the hands of imperialists. It is the imperialist powers which vulgarize our newspapers in this way in order to poison the minds of our youth. It is they who organize our cultural programs in such a way as to ensure that we have no capable, virile youngsters. It is the imperialist powers who arrange such radio and TV programs so as to weaken people's resolve and to make them lose their vigor, their potency. All this is the doing of the imperialists and it is to such imperialist manifestations that we object. Does that then make us reactionaries? What we have to say is extremely simple and doesn't warrant aggression or hostility. Why not sit down and talk rationally? There is no need for anger and rage. There is no need to throw insults. All you have to do is to send some sensible representatives to talk with us and explain exactly what it is about cultural development and progress that we supposedly take issue with. What we do object to is all forms of corruption. We believe that your reform programs are in fact devised by Israel and it is to Israel that you turn for help and advice whenever you want to draw up a plan. You bring military advisers from Israel into this country. «22» You send students from our country to Israel. If only they were sent elsewhere; to America or even to Britain for example. But no, you send them to Israel! These are the kinds of issues we dispute.

The Muslim countries on one front, Iran and Turkey on the other

We argue that the entire Muslim countries have formed a united front on one side, in opposition to infidelity and Israel, while you yourself and the Turkish government are stationed on the other side in support of Israel. We hold that this is ill-advised. For God's sake man, don't go against the sensibilities of the Muslim peoples so, for I swear by God this is suicidal. All of the Muslims on one side and Iran on the other! If this is to be the case, then the nation of Iran will become reproachable and our Sunni brothers will think that Shi`ah are Jew-worshippers.

Voicing out the opposition to Israel

O people of the world! Let it be known that our nation condemns any alliance made with Israel. It is neither our nation nor our clergy who have made such an alliance. Indeed our religion beseeches us not to join hands with the enemies of Islam; just as our Qur'an implores us not to align with the enemies of Islam against the Muslim front. This is what we maintain. Can you call this being reactionary? If so then come and explain to us in what way this can be said to constitute reaction. You who boast a history of two-and-a-half millennia of sovereign rule and endlessly crow about those rotten bones which have decomposed and are no more «23» and which you now want to dig up from beneath the soil to use in your confrontation with Islam, have you now at this late hour joined forces with Israel against the precepts of Islam and against the Muslims?! We are the ones who advocate your non-involvement with Israel, yet you now try to accuse us of collaborating with others and of being involved with so-and-so and whatever he brought with him. «24» The Devil takes this reasoning! Shame on you! Yes, this is what we have to say. Now in what way can this be called traditionalism, as that stupid man persists in asserting? What is traditionalist about our argument?

Islam at a superior level of civilization

We enjoy a superior level of civilization; Islam enjoys a superior level of civilization; the greatly-esteemed maraji` of Islam also enjoy a superior level of civilization. You may go and see them for yourselves. They can be seen here or in Mashhad, Tehran, or Najaf. Go and see which of these great men is reactionary. Those in power travel around by air or by car and expect the nation to travel by donkey. Earlier this year however, we all saw how one of these respected maraji` traveled to Mashhad by air; «25» and everyone knows that the other maraji` always travel by car. Again this year we witnessed how the maraji` journeyed to Tehran where they all assembled «26»- I would later like to praise this move- but the question is, did they go by donkey? Are these men hostile to the effects of development and progress?

The clergy as the usual supporter of the country

We ask you not to behave in this manner. We are after all members of the same family; we are all fellow countrymen. So why do you want to divide us? We lend this country our unconditional support without making any demands upon her budget; and despite the beatings, insults, abuse, imprisonment, and torture we are made to bear, we still remain a solid column which remains standing at the service of our country. If, God forbid, any danger ever threatened this country, then we would stand steadfast in readiness to fearlessly confront it.

Theakhound remains while you flee

There are those who say that they want to protect this country and who brag about their courage and valor. But do you recall how, when the Allied Forces came to Iran, it was these very poor souls who fled even as far as Yazd? «27» Can you name just one akhound who fled though; just one? On that day when airplanes were flying over Tehran in order to intimidate and terrorize the people, the late Ashaykh Husayn Qummi, may his soul rest in peace, and I, were somewhere in the vicinity of Shapour Square. «28» As these aircraft were ominously hovering above, his eminence was twiddling his moustache as if absolutely nothing was happening; and I likewise was very calm and collected. On the contrary, however, if the shoe was on the other foot, then the first ones to flee would be those decorated heroes who are so puffed up with self-esteem and who constantly boast of the services they render to the country. It is only when oppression reigns and when it is in their own interests that they are strong. Thanks to God, however, that we are the ones who will always remain until the very end. Unless of course they come and take us away; otherwise you can be sure that we will be here.

Religion versus religion

Don't be mistaken in thinking that their plan to establish an Islamic university is due to their reconciliation with Islam; this is not at all the case. Instead, it is but a repetition of the time when the Qur'an was raised at the end of the bayonet in the confrontation with Amir al-Mu'minin( the Commander of the Faithful- Imam `Ali( `a ) ). «29» Mu`awiyah defeated Amir al-Mu'minin by taking advantage of the power of the Qur'an and using it as a weapon. Yes, by using the Qur'an as a weapon! Otherwise there is no doubt that it would have taken a maximum of a few hours only to wipe the Bani Umayyad off the face of the earth. They drew up a plan, however, whereby the Qur'an was brought forward and they said:" We are Muslims and you too are Muslims. We both bear witness to the same God and quote this Qur'an saying: There is no god but Allah." No matter how much Amir al-Mu'minin insisted on being patient and not rushing into war, arguing no good would come from it, the foolish Kharijites «30» who were the Imam's friends and companions (although they never really came to know him) ignored the Imam's pleas claiming that according to the Qur'an it was incumbent upon them to fight. They thought of an artifice: they fastened copies of the Qur'an onto their lances and raised them up into the air declaring:" The arbitrator between ourselves and yourselves is the Book of Allah; the arbitrator is the Book of Allah." «31» Hadrat Imam sent after those of his companions who were actually engaged in battle, telling them to cease fighting and to return. His companions however, returned a message stating that they needed to fight for a further hour. Thus, the Imam explained to them that the Kharijites, having been deceived by the enemy, had now surrounded him and with swords drawn were about to kill him unless they returned from the battle front. Hence, we see how Islam was defeated by misuse of the Qur'an.

The conspiracy to defeat Islam in the name of" Islamic university"

Do you truly believe you can defeat Islam by establishing an Islamic university? Do you imagine we will sit back and permit you to execute your plans? Indeed, we shall anathematize whosoever enters that university. The people themselves will bring it down. Could they conceivably allow the religion, believers and `ulama' of Islam to be under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture? The Ministry hadn't better make the fatal mistake of interfering with our religion or with Islamic issues, because only if Khomeini or God forbid, all the maraji` of Islam actually passed away could they continue to see this program through. Even when we have gone and are thereby relieved of our Islamic duties, the nation of Islam will live on; it has been revived and given a new lease of life. May God reward all those responsible for this revival.

The nation as uncompromising

The nation of Islam has arisen and will never again acquiesce. Even if I make a U-turn or compromise with you( the Shah ), the nation surely will not. We still adamantly retain our stance in opposition to those laws which counter Islam and to unwarranted incarceration and all kinds of compulsion and pressure exerted upon the nation. Are we reactionaries because we ask why certain people had been imprisoned, or ask what those poor souls in Bandar `Abbashad done to deserve banishment there or indeed to deserve execution; or what they had done to deserve detention? «32» Supposing their crime had been to utter a few words concerning your duty to abide by the law, do those few words warrant a life sentence in Bandar `Abbas?

Savagery of the Middle Ages

You ought to reconsider your stand somewhat. Amend your behavior and abandon this reactionary attitude of yours. Try not to behave so savagely. Make efforts to leave these medieval practices behind. Don't be so reactionary; be civilized, be progressive. Allow the country to develop and afford its people respect. Don't subject the people to such hardships. Ensure that university curricula are such that our youth receive good moral and educational instruction. Train them to be combatants so that they refuse to tolerate imperialism.

" Progress", or debauchery, corruption and despotism

This is what we the reactionaries urge. If you still call this being reactionary then so be it. But it is you, the" progressivists", who are systematically causing (moral and intellectual) damage to our youth by the score. As for your schools, they are not upright, thus rendering them untrustworthy. The educational programs implemented are in fact imperialist. Schooling entails nothing but games and football. Is this the situation in other countries? If so then who made all those major scientific discoveries? Who invented the airplane? It was the developed nations of course. Even the water-pipe installed in Qum is unfit for use because it was made in Iran. You and your" developed" country are not even capable of manufacturing a water-pipe. Interestingly, Razmara «33» made the claim:" We don't know how to manufacture anything other than pipes" and he was subsequently killed as a result. How can you call a country which is totally dependent upon foreign trade for its every need, developed? You bring specialists to Iran from Israel and I believe it was the Ustavar «34» newspaper that carried an astounding report which told of people actually being sent to Israel from Qum in order to" learn something". God only knows what kind of things they can learn from the Jews, other than the art of cheating, deceiving and betraying. What is there for this" developed nation" to learn? What do you think? What's your opinion? Do you really think that words are sufficient? Can development result from sending a few women to the Majlis? Have the male members of the Majlis actually accomplished anything for you so far which leads you to believe that your women may now do so? We believe that sending women to the Majlis will result in nothing but immorality and we believe that in ten, twenty or thirty years time you will see that we were right. We in no way oppose women's progress, but we do oppose fornication and other such sinful deeds.
It's all too easy to talk about" men's freedom" and" women's freedom", but will it be achieved by mere words; and anyway, do men themselves really enjoy" freedom" in this country that you now want to offer" freedom" to women? Exactly what is it men are free to do? I am unable to adequately thank all of the Muslim nations; the great nation of Iran; all the members of different sects and groups and all of those who joined forces with us and shared our grief. Particular recognition must be given to those most revered maraji` at-taqlid, who took the trouble to travel to Tehran, where they experienced insults and abuse and truly went to great lengths. The eminent maraji` from all over the country assembled in the capital city having traveled from the cities of Mashhad, Ahwaz and Qum. Cooperation was forthcoming from all quarters, such as Najaf and even from the one person who had remained in Qum. «35» Everyone united and worked together thus proving the vitality and consciousness of the nation. We are prepared to endure anything for the liberty of this nation, whether it involves imprisonment, undergoing torture or bearing insults and abuse. I am pleased to say that those same distinguished maraji` are present with us today, may God multiply their like( the audience cries," Amen" ), including those from Najaf, Mashhad and Tehran, may God multiply their like( the audience cries," Amen" ). Islam is not a forlorn religion with merely one or two devotees, but rather every Muslim is a soldier of Islam. We must praise God that the `ulama' have joined hands and are prepared to sacrifice their lives in the path of Islam. It would be impossible for them to be any other way. We are all organs of the same body; we are as one, whether it be the person who considered it wiser to act temperately or the person who believed it better to take a dynamic course of action. I cannot adequately express my gratitude to these noble people. May Almighty God save them all( the audience cries," Amen" ); and may their protective shadow remain above us and above all the Muslims( the audience cries," Amen" ). Although we are many in number yet we are but one unit. Let no one presume that they can cause a rift between the `ulama' via mischievous propaganda, for this is not so. We are all together as one entity to fight in defense of Islam and its honor and in defense of Iran and the nation's independence. We are unified and have but one voice.
Insult to the maraji`means termination of wilayah
I feel I must offer a word of advice to the young theological students who have recently joined the clergy and who are full of vigor and vitality. They need to be aware that the least insult aimed by them at any of the maraji` of Islam would mean the termination of the wilayah between themselves and God. I assure you that to slight a distinguished marja` is no trivial matter, so much so that if this great movement was to be impaired in any way as a result of such ignorance, then you would be chastised by God Almighty and the acceptance of your repentance would be problematic, for it is the honor and dignity of Islam that would have been damaged. I swear that if my children or myself were slapped in the face by someone, an act of retaliation would not please me and I would not agree to it, «36» for I am aware that there are those who would like to create discord within this circle, be it through ignorance or by intent. Such discord, God forbid, would be most injurious to Islam whereby the wishes of the imperialists would materialize.
We must all sacrifice ourselves for Islam. We must sacrifice our aspirations and desires for the sake of Islam. All of the maraji` are over sixty years old. Is it conceivable that someone who has grown old devoting his life to Islam can then act to the detriment of Islam? Of course not. If at any time a disagreement does arise however, concerning the ijtihad of the maraji`, as may also occur with any other Islamic issue, then the youngsters must not become involved or interfere in any way, for this would present danger. The enemy is vigilant and awaiting. Hence, be aware that to insult one member of the clergy is to insult the entire Muslim community and to weaken the Muslim society.
Extending a brotherly hand to the Muslims
I who am now seated here before you, humbly kiss the hands of all the maraji`, wherever they may be; be it in Najaf, Mashhad, Tehran, or right here( in Qum ). I kiss the hand of the entire `ulama' of Islam. It is the ultimate goal which is of primary importance. I extend a brotherly hand to all Islamic nations and to all the Muslims of the world, be they in the East or the West. We humble ourselves before all the `ulama' of Islam. You too must humble yourselves; all of you without exception. We are all from one nation and one country and we all have one religion. We are all seated at the table of the mercy of God, the Blessed and Exalted. We must thank God and be appreciative of the great maraji` with whom we are blessed. To honor them is to honor Islam and to insult them is to insult Islam. Bear it in mind never to insult a marja` or indeed any Muslim, for that would deeply displease Almighty God and I fear He might at some time chastise us; akhdha `azizin muqtadir. «37»
May Almighty God grant success to all of the `ulama' in their service to Islam(" Amen"). May God keep all the maraji` of Islam in the shelter of His protection (" Amen"). May the protective shadow of all the maraji` remain over all the Muslims (" Amen"). May God grant strength to the religion of Islam and may the hands of those who seek to betray this nation's independence and her economy be severed (" Amen").
May peace be upon you.
«۱»- Among the major events of that year were: the assault made by the Shah's agents on the Faydiyyah and Hujjatiyyah madrasahs and the killing and wounding there of a large number of clerics and religious students; the conscripting of academic students and students of religious learning centers to military service; the detention of Imam Khomeini; the holding of mass demonstrations and protests against the detention of the Imam and the quelling of demonstrations held in Qum, Tehran, Shiraz, etc.; the incarceration of Ayatullah Qummi in Mashhad and also Ayatullah Baha'uddin Mahallati, the latter's brother and son, the son of Ayatullah Dastghayb and others in Shiraz, all of whom were sent to Tehran as was Ayatullah Sayyid `Abdul-Husayn when he too was arrested ten days later; the journey made by distinguished Ayatullahs and clergy to the capital city in protest against the detention of the movement's leader and the confinement of university lecturers and a great number of clergy from all over the country; and in addition to all of these events was the regime's increasing cooperation and collaboration with Israel. «۲»- The Shah used to spend part of the country's revenue on heavily financing propaganda campaigns. Both ambassadors and the Royal Public Relations Bureau gave millions of dollars to writers and publicity agencies and to the press, radio and television, to ensure that the Shah's crimes and treacherous activities remained concealed and that instead he was introduced as one of the world's great politicians and outstanding thinkers. Le Point, printed in France, voted the Shah as" The man of the year"! Barry Rubin, the American researcher, in his book The Power Struggle in Iran writes:" The extensive nature of the propaganda which was spread by the regime was one of the main reasons why the latter's shortcomings remained hidden." The sums of money given by the Shah for propaganda purposes were so vast that rivalry broke out between Iranologists from America, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Holland over the translation of materials such as the Shah's own book or the Mu`arrifi-ye Tamaddun va Shahan-e Gozashteh. Such payments were made in absolute secrecy and hence the exact amounts involved for these or other payments offered as bribes for propaganda are not yet known. Documents uncovered since the victory of the Revolution however, both in Iran and in Iranian embassies abroad, indicate that these amounts had been quite substantial. In America alone, millions of dollars were spent each year on popularizing the Shah's regime. Among the contracts made to this end, was the five-hundred-and-sev dollar contract made with the New York public relations counseling agency, Ruder and Finn, Inc.; the agreement to pay Marion Javits, the wife of Senator Javits, an annual sum of sixty seven thousand five hundred dollars; and the regular payment of exorbitant sums to William Rogers, the former US State Secretary. Following his departure from Iran in November ۱۹۷۸ [Aban ۱۳۵۷ AHS], Siyamak Zand, the head of the press section of the Royal Public Relations Bureau, stated in an interview that he used to bribe most of the foreign journalists. In the same interview he clearly named four of the journalists in question to be the editor-in-chief of the American magazine Newsweek; two journalists from The Daily Telegraph and The Times; and the French reporter Gerard de Villiers. Refer to The Power Struggle in Iran, p. ۱۱۷; In the Service of the Peacock Throne, p. ۳۱۰; and the Herald Tribune newspaper of November ۱۷, ۱۹۷۸ [Aban ۲۶, ۱۳۵۷ AHS]. «۳»- Time magazine, June ۱۴, ۱۹۶۳ [Khordad ۲۴, ۱۳۴۲ AHS] reads:" For three days during the past week, Tehran became a battleground. People were screaming, machine guns were rapping and How ironic that this was a fight against `development' Powerful opposition to him (the Shah) includes the corrupt leaders as a whole, big landowners and the mullahs who believe that his program entails non-Muslim involvement." United Press International writes:" Demonstrations have taken place due to incitement by religious figures: those who are opposed to the Shah's reforms since their interests have been damaged by them." Moscow radio, on the eve of June ۶:" The reactionary elements in Iran who are unhappy with the land reforms held a demonstration today in the streets of Tehran, Qum and Mashhad. Certain religious leaders were the directors and main instigators of this unrest." «۴»- Here, reference is made to the militant `ulama' such as the martyr Ayatullah Haj Shaykh Fadlullah Nouri, Ayatullah Sayyid `Abdullah Behbahani, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Tabataba'i, Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Hasan Ashtiyani, Shaykh Muhammad Khiyabani, and Sayyid Jamaluddin Isfahani. «۵»- In a speech given a few days prior to this address, the Shah had said:" We condemn traditionalism and reactionary thinking"; and similarly, he later wrote in the book The White Revolution:" The unrest of Khordad ۱۵, ۱۳۴۲ (June ۵, ۱۹۶۳) which was financed by a group of landlords who had been hit by the Land Reform Bill was the best illustration of the `unholy' alliance which exists between two camps: the black reaction and the red destructive force. '' «۶»- A reference to the Shah. «۷»- Kennedy had given the Shah his word that Iran would receive both loans and foreign capital investment in return for the implementation of" reforms". By the word" dollar" the Imam means the American financial aid for which the Shah used to appeal. The New York Times with reference to the Shah's referendum and implementation of reforms writes:" Iran has discovered more suitable terms for the receipt of American aid." «۸»- The leading article of the Ittila`at newspaper on April ۷, ۱۹۶۴[ Farvardin ۱۸, ۱۳۴۳ AHS ]reads:" How fortunate it is that the clerical community has also now joined forces with the people in executing the programs of the Shah-People Revolution." «۹»- Early in the year ۱۹۶۳ [۱۳۴۲ AHS], at the time of the Faydiyyah incident, the Talibiyyah Madrasah was also attacked. A number of SAVAK agents and police officials in Tabriz proceeded toward this madrasah with the intention of tearing down Imam Khomeini's declaration which had been posted upon the wall there. However, on arrival they encountered the resistance and protests of the religious students. A violent scuffle broke out between the latter and the officials during which one police officer was killed. In the meantime, further officials surged towards the madrasah and employing both fire- and side-arms they destroyed whatever they came across. They beat and swore at the theological students and clergy, towards whom they fired, killing some and injuring others. «۱۰»- The Shah. «۱۱»- The tragedy of Khordad ۱۵, ۱۳۴۲ AHS [June ۵, ۱۹۶۳] was so great that news of it spread beyond the Iranian borders, the millions of dollars of money spent annually by the Shah on self-publicity failing to keep this horrifying news veiled. On June ۶ and ۷, ۱۹۶۳ the newspaper Al-Ahram took to describing the tragedy; an article entitled" The Great Deceit" was carried by the weekly The Arab Observer on June ۱۷, ۱۹۶۳; on July ۱۰, ۱۹۶۳ Shaykh Mahmoud Shaltout, the head of Al-Azhar University in Egypt issued a statement with regard to this event; and" The Lebanese Islamic Scientific Society", the youth of Kuwait, Iranian Muslim students in Germany and other groups responded and voiced their objection by issuing statements, wiring telegraphs and sending open letters to both Muslim and international leaders. «۱۲»- Reference here is made to the head of the government of the day (Hasan-`Ali Mansour). «۱۳»- Following the publication of the article," Holy Alliance for a Holy Cause" (Ittihad-e Muqaddas beh Khatir-e Hadaf-e Muqaddas) in the Ittila`at newspaper of April ۷, ۱۹۶۴ (Farvardin ۱۸, ۱۳۴۳ AHS) covering the alleged unity between the Shah and the clergy over the" White Revolution", Imam Khomeini sends Hujjat al-Islam Fadlullah Mahallati to the newspaper's office to ask who these" clergy" are. The editor-in-chief of Ittila`at states that the article was sent to the newspaper from high-ranking government officials and that they had no choice but to publish it. The Imam demands that the editor-in-chief refutes the report in question in his paper and that he follows up and acts upon his own decision with the utmost strength and firmness. Eventually the government is forced to send a representative to Qum to visit the Imam and apologize to him; and as well as asking forgiveness the representative was to give assurances that henceforth the publication of lies and defamatory statements pertaining to the clergy would be prevented. «۱۴»- `Abbas Mas`oudi, the proprietor and editor-in-chief of Ittila`at. «۱۵»- In the text reference is made to" rouhani-ye sazmani" meaning the pseudo-clergy agents of SAVAK. «۱۶»- The" Senate" (or Upper House) was the second Majlis of the late regime which was established according to Articles ۴۳ and ۴۵ of the constitutional law and comprised sixty members (senators): thirty members appointed by the Shah and thirty members popularly elected. «۱۷»- The Shah. «۱۸»- Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon ۹. «۱۹»- At the onset of Islam's period of expansion, the Muslim armies captured Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Iran, Tripoli, Cyprus, and Punjab; and subsequently they went on to take Egypt, North Africa, Spain, Portugal, south-west Europe(the Iberian Peninsula), south-east France, and Athens. Refer to Faraz va Nashib-e Tamaddun-e Islami dar Espanya, p. ۶; and Inqilab-e Islami va Difa`i Muqaddas, p. ۲۷۴. «۲۰»- Toward the beginning of the ۱۹۶۰ 's the regime decided to establish a university by the name of" The Islamic University"! Imperialist policies required that the religious and scientific teaching centers lay under government control and that the clerical community became attached to the government administration departments. The clergy of Iran, however, ever- vigilant, did not allow the Shah to succeed in this. «۲۱»- It refers to the Ministry of Training and Education that was called the Ministry of Education at that time. «۲۲»- The political relationship between Iran and Israel dates back to the post- ۱۹۵۳ (۱۳۳۲ AHS) years. In ۱۹۶۰ (۱۳۳۹ AHS) the government of the day in Iran gave official recognition to Israel and a friendly relationship between the Shah and Israel got under way. During these years of friendship many army officers and SAVAK agents were sent to Israel to receive training from MOSSAD (the Israeli intelligence agency) agents, and hundreds of Israeli officers and agents came to Iran to supervise the army and the Shah's intelligence agency( SAVAK )and to assist the Shah's agents. Toward the end of the Shah's reign the transactions which passed between Iran and Israel had reached an annual sum of four hundred million dollars. The Shah had himself ordered for an arms purchase worth six hundred million dollars in one go alone. According to the documents which were obtained from the American" den of espoinage" after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, the Shah's regime had in fact, since ۱۹۵۸ (۱۳۳۷ AHS), been a member of an official tripartite organization composed of the security services of Iran, Turkey and Israel which was named" The Triple-Headed Bayonet". Refer to Documents from the US Espionage Den, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam. «۲۳»- The Shah had given himself the title" Aryamehr" meaning" light of the Aryan race" and had tried to give a new lease of life to the history of the Iranian monarchy. He also went through with the two-and-a-half-mille celebrations in an attempt to bring to life the Iran of the past as well as its kings and to destroy Islamic culture and its teachings. In the book Mission for my Country, the Shah has immeasurably glorified past kings of Iran, kings not at all much different from himself. «۲۴»- From the movement's onset admirers of the Imam both from within and without the country would come to see him in a show of support, and these would include outstanding national and revolutionary figures. On one occasion a person introducing himself as an Egyptian diplomat in Lebanon managed to meet with Imam with the help of an Iranian cleric who acted as intermediary. At this meeting this person said that he was commissioned by Jamal `Abdun-Nasir, the head of the Egyptian government, to convey the latter's gratitude to the Imam for his having revolted against Israel. There is reason to believe that this man had probably been sent on behalf of the Shah's intelligence service. Jamal `Abdun-Nasir was one of Israel's major enemies, while the Shah was regarded as one of its staunch supporters and the propaganda spread by the Shah persistently presented Egypt as Iran's enemy. With the intention of plotting against Imam and of generating suspicion toward him, the regime published this concocted report in the press of June ۱۹۶۳ (Khordad, ۱۳۴۲ AHS):" On June ۱ a person named `Abdul-Qays Jowjow (or Muhammad Tawfiq al-Qiyasi) arrived at Mehrabad airport in Tehran from Lebanon. Since he was viewed as being suspicious by the custom officers he was taken for questioning and enquiries were held. As a result, a sum of about one million tumans was taken from him which, subsequent to investigations, he confessed to have brought from Jamal `Abdun-Nasir to give to certain persons in Iran."! «۲۵»- Sayyid Hadi Milani was one of the maraji` of that time who was resident in Mashhad and who, along with other migrant `ulama' and maraji` of Tehran, had gone to the home of Ayatullah Khwansari. The Imam's address indicates the extent of the regime's anti-clergy propaganda in that Imam was forced to make mention of something that seemed so trivial and obvious. «۲۶»- Following the arrest of the Leader of the Islamic Revolution and the radio broadcast of `Alam's (the Prime Minister) speech in which he gave notice that those who had been arrested would be tried and executed, the clerical community in Iran converged on Tehran from all over the country: from Qum, Ayatullah Mar`ashi, Mr. Shari`atmadari, Ayatullah Murtada Ha'iri; from Mashhad, Ayatullah Milani and Shaykh Mujtaba Qazvini; from Hamedan, Akhound Mulla `Ali Ma`sumi; from Ahwaz, Haj Sayyid `Ali Behbahani; from Isfahan, Haj Husayn Khadimi and Baqir Zand Kermani; from Khorramabad, Ayatullah Kamalvand; from Yazd, Ayatullah Sadouqi and other `ulama' from all over the country. Refer to Nahdat-e Rouhaniyyoun-e Iran, vol.۴, p.۱۳۲. The aforementioned clergy having assembled, issued a declaration headed," The declaration of the clerical community in Iran," the complete text of which is to be found in ibid., vol.۴, p.۱۳۴. «۲۷»- At ۴ am on August ۲۵, ۱۹۴۱ (Shahrivar ۳, ۱۳۲۰ AHS), the British and Russian ambassadors went to the home of `Ali Mansour, the Prime Minister of the day, to inform him of the Allies' attack on Iran. On the eve of September ۱۳ (Shahrivar ۲۲), Rida Khan (Shah) was informed that the Russians had entered Karaj and that they were advancing toward Tehran with great speed. On hearing this news the royal family and Rida Khan himself all made for Isfahan. Rida Khan went from Isfahan to Kerman and then to Bandar `Abbas from where he was then taken to his place of exile by ship. Ministers, parliamentary representatives and army commanders too- i.e. those who make claim to being the country's protectors!- every one of them slithered into some hole or other! The commander of the Khouzestan troops surrendered without hesitation whilst the Americans, who were situated at the Ahwaz-Dezfoul frontier, continued to advance; the military commanders of Tabriz along with their soldiers and officers laid down their arms and fled toward the mountains and the Russians took over the region without meeting any opposition; the army of Gilan, whose commander was later decorated for bravery, fired a few cannon balls and then fled! The commander of the First Division which was stationed at Marzanabad lay in hiding and the troops of Mashhad fled toward the salt desert without water or food. Refer to The Memoirs of General Fardoust, vol.۱, p.۸۷ onward. «۲۸»- Shapour Square (currently named Wahdat-e Islami), is situated in one of the old areas of Tehran, which, due to urban expansion, is now to be found in the south of the city immediately north of the railway station. «۲۹»- In the battle of Siffin, Mu`awiyah's soldiers, seeing that they were in danger of defeat, fixed copies of the Qur'an to the end of their spears under the orders of `Amr ibn al-`As and proposed to `Ali( `a )that God's Book be the arbiter between them. The purpose of this ploy was to sew discord amongst `Ali's troops and indeed resulted in the latter ceasing to fight in the battle. No matter how much Hadrat `Ali counseled them it was to no avail. Eventually the matter was taken to arbitration and `Ali's near-victory turned into defeat. Refer to Waqi`at as-Siffin and Al-Imamah wa's-Siyasah. «۳۰»- Khawarij( Kharijites )is the plural of khariji(" foreigner/ dissenter" ); someone who turns against the government. After the battle of Siffin, a group of the Muslims who were later called the Kharijites left their ranks and chanting," No arbitrator other than Allah" they held that the murder of `Ali and Mu`awiyah was a religious duty. «۳۱»- Refer to the book Waqi`atu as-Siffin, p.۴۸۱. «۳۲»- It refers to the unfortunate episode of ۱۹۶۳. This episode concerns the execution at dawn of two combatants on November ۲, ۱۹۶۳ (Aban ۱۱, ۱۳۴۲ AHS)- Tayyib Haj Rida'i and Haj Isma`il Rida'i- their crime having been their participation in the Khordad ۱۵ uprising. During this event, Tayyib caused the gang of Sha`ban Ja`fari (known as" bi mukh"(brainless)) to flee: a group established by Ja`fari in support of the Shah's regime. Haj Isma`il Rida'i was another of the devout, free-minded people of Tehran. By administering both mental and physical tortures to these two combatants the regime hoped that they would declare their receipt of a monetary payment from the Imam. Eventually, due to the resistance they exhibited they were both tortured to death. Once the news of their martyrdom broke, the theological center closed down and all religious classes were cancelled. On the seventh day following their martyrdom a group of well-known religious merchants and clerical combatants issued a declaration headed," The United Islamic Councils". Part of this declaration reads: " Following the mock trial held on Saturday ۲, two of the bravest of Iran's children who were not prepared to accept the false charges made against the clergy by the security organization, despite the most inhuman tortures they were made to endure, lost their lives under the gunfire of the slaves of bloodthirsty foreigners. Their names however, now adorn the pages of a history of struggle against foreigners." With regard to the Bandar `Abbas exiles and those imprisoned in Tehran, it must be remembered that the number of those arrested in the event concerning Tayyib and Haj Isma`il was seventeen in all, for each of which the military courts' prosecutor requested execution. Five people were sentenced to death in court but this sentence was later commuted for three of the convicted in a second court. A number of those arrested remained incarcerated until the victory of the Revolution. This account is verified by a confession made by Marshal Davallow Qajar (the adjudicator of Tayyib and Haj Isma`il), who was a trial witness in the Islamic Revolutionary Court of Tehran, and it has been recorded in the newspaper Jumhouri-ye Islami of November ۲۵, ۱۹۷۹ (Azar ۴, ۱۳۵۸ AHS). «۳۳»- Marshal `Ali Razmara, the supreme army commander during the time of Muhammad Rida Pahlavi, who became Prime Minister in July of ۱۹۵۰ (Tir, ۱۳۲۹ AHS) advocating reforms in the system of government and a strengthening of the judicial system. He was among those who opposed the ratification of the bill to nationalize the Iranian oil industry, and in the National Consultative Assembly he said:" How can an Iranian who even manufacture a ewer, run the oil industry can't should it become nationalized?" On March ۷ (Esfand ۱۶) of that same year Razmara was assassinated in the Shah Mosque (current name: Imam Khomeini Mosque) by Khalil Tahmasbi of the Fada'iyan-e Islam group. «۳۴»- Refer to the local Qum-based Ustavar newspaper, No. ۱۶, ۳/ ۵/ ۱۹۶۴ (۱۲/ ۲۵/ ۱۳۴۳ AHS). «۳۵»- Following the Imam's arrest, Ayatullah Golpaygani did not travel to Tehran along with the other `ulama' and maraji` but instead he remained in Qum. «۳۶»- A number of religious students objected to the uncooperative and cautious behavior of some of the maraji`. They thus behaved insolently towards the latter protesting that they did not confront the Shah in the way that the Imam did. In defending the maraji` and the unity of the religious teaching centers, the Imam reminded them of the aforementioned issues. «۳۷»- Ma'khoudh or" overtook," from Sourah al-Qamar ۵۴:۴۲ :" They rejected all our communications so we overtook them after the manner of the Mighty, Powerful One."

امام خمینی (ره)؛ 26 فروردین 1343

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