شناسه مطلب صحیفه
نمایش نسخه چاپی

Speech [Duty of the heads of Muslim countries and the responsibility of the `ulama' in introducing Islamic programs]

Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq
Commencement of Imam Khomeini's classes in Najaf Religious Seminary
Duty of the heads of Muslim countries and the responsibility of the `ulama' in introducing Islamic programs
`Ulama', scholars and students of Najaf Religious Seminary
جلد ۲ صحیفه امام خمینی (ره)، از صفحه ۲۹ تا صفحه ۴۳
[In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful]
O God, preserve our tongues from vain discourse (the audience replies with Amen). Turn our hearts towards Thee (Amen). Keep us from depending on anyone other than Thee (Amen). Cast the love of this world out of our hearts (Amen). Endow us with a moral disposition (Amen). Keep us from all evil in the care of the Commander of the Faithful (Imam `Ali (`a)(Amen). Make us servants of Islam and Muslims (Amen). Make us appreciative of the `ulama' of Islam (Amen). Protect the `ulama' of Islam wherever they may be (Amen). Let the religion of Islam, the word of Islam, take precedence over all others (Amen). O God, render the word of Islam elevated and predominant. «1»

The suffering of the Prophet (s) while inviting to monotheism

You gentlemen know that the Prophet of Islam (may God's peace and salutations be upon him and his descendants) rose up for God alone in a hostile environment. He rose up and endured great hardships, troubles and suffering until he conveyed the message of Islam to the people. He invited the people to the right path, he invited them to monotheism, he withstood such great hardships that I think it is beyond the ability of anyone else to endure the same. After the death of the Most Noble Messenger (may God's peace and salutations be upon him and his descendants) the Muslims carried out their duties to a certain extent. They strengthened Islam; they spread Islam such that a great Islamic state was established in the world which was superior to all others. The Prophet himself wrote a letter to Heraclius «2» which is preserved in the book Sahih al-Bukhari; «3» and in fact, as is recorded in history, he wrote four letters to four rulers, the rulers of Iran, Rome, Egypt and Abyssinia. «4» These letters, if I am not mistaken, have been preserved, and I have seen his actual letter in a Turkish museum, if I remember rightly. «5» In these four letters, the contents of which are the same, he invited the four rulers to Islam and monotheism. This was the first step; this was the basis from which to convey the truth of Islam to the entire world, to all the empires of the world, and to introduce true Islam to the people. Unfortunately, apart from the Abyssinian king, none of the rulers gave a positive reply and so the Noble Messenger's invitation, his attempts to introduce Islam to them ceased. Still, through numerous hardships, the Noble Messenger himself, and those who were responsible for the leadership of Islam after him, strengthened Islam, and it was passed down through the generations until now when it has been entrusted to us. Islam is now entrusted to this generation which exists now. This generation is responsible for Islam and the Islamic laws, and this responsibility changes according to the different classes of people. The responsibility of some is very great and that of others not so great.

Program for life and government in Islam

Those whose responsibility is very great are the Muslim governments, the Muslim heads of state and the Muslim kings. Their responsibility is great and perhaps greater than all other classes. Islam is now entrusted, according to the will and ontological command «6» of God, the Blessed and Exalted, to the hands of these people. They are responsible for protecting Islam, for guarding its laws and preserving ideological unity under Islam. They are also responsible for introducing Islam to the civilized world so that it won't be thought that Islam is like Christianity (nominal, not true Christianity): a spiritual relationship between the people and God, the Blessed and Exalted, and nothing more. Islam has a program for life, a program for governance. Islam ruled for five hundred years or more, it reigned even though the laws of Islam at that time were not put into practice as they should have been. Still, even with only half of them in implementation, Islam administered a vast state with honor and dignity in all aspects, in all matters. One shouldn't suppose that Islam is like the other religions which exist today. These religions, especially Christianity which has nothing except for a few moral codes, have no program pertaining to the politics and administration of countries. Perhaps at their own time they did, but no longer. Islam is not like these religions, it has a program for these things. Islam has laid the foundations of man's life from before his birth. It has established the social foundations of the family and has laid down injunctions for man for the time that he lives in the family to the time that he enters into education, to the time that he enters society, to the time that he has relations with other countries, with other governments, with other nations; all of these have a program, the holy laws contain provisions for all of these things. Islam does not constitute just praying and making pilgrimage, the laws of Islam are not concerned merely with performing the mandatory ritual prayer [namaz], supplicatory prayer and pilgrimage; these form just one section of the laws of Islam. Praying and making pilgrimage are just one concern among a number covered by Islam. Islam deals with politics, with administering a country. Islamic laws can administer large countries. It is the responsibility of the presidents of Islamic countries, the kings of Islamic countries, the governments of Islamic countries to introduce Islam to the world.

The difference between church and mosque

Christians should not imagine that Islam is like Christianity or that the mosque is like the church. When namaz was held in the mosque, duties were assigned, the principles of war were decided there, and the administration of countries was planned there. The mosque is not like the church. The church, as they say, represents a personal relationship between the people and God, the Blessed and Exalted, however the mosque of the Muslims at the time of the Messenger of God (may God's peace and salutations be upon him and his descendants) and at the time of the caliphs- however they were- was the center of the politics of Islam. On Fridays, the Friday prayer sermon was political, it was concerned with wars, with the administration of cities, these all came from the mosque, the foundations were laid in the mosque at the time of the Messenger of God and at the time of Hadrat Amir,[ Imam `Ali ]may God's peace be upon him, and at other times.

The need to introduce Islam

Islam should be introduced as it really is; the leaders are charged with a duty to perform. Those to whom God, the Blessed and Exalted, has given leadership have a responsibility to carry out. They have to introduce true Islam. They should organize a radio program for the introduction of Islam. They should consult the `ulama' so they can explain to them the truth of Islam and then they should propagate this truth by means of the radio and other methods of communication.

The goal of the Prophet of Islam (s) «7»

The Prophet of Islam wanted to create ideological unity in the world. He wanted to bring all the countries of the world, all the inhabited regions of the earth, together under the banner of monotheism. But the great desires of the kings of that time on the one hand and the prejudice of the Jewish and Christian clergy and others on the other were obstacles to his plans. Even today they form obstacles, they create problems for us. Even today the Jews prevent us from spreading Islam. Even now the Christians prevent us from introducing true Islam. Even today they form an obstacle.

The duty of the heads of Islamic countries is to be united

Today it is the duty of the heads of Islamic countries, the kings and the presidents of Islamic countries to put aside these petty differences which occasionally arise between them. There are no Arabs and non-Arabs, Turks and Persians; there is only Islam and unity under Islam. They should adopt the same method of struggle that the Prophet of Islam used in his struggle; they should follow the way of Islam. If they guard their ideological unity, if they put aside these petty differences, if all the Muslims join together, then, according to estimations, «8» there will be a community of seven hundred million. But seven hundred million people divided are not as great as one million united. Seven hundred million divided people are of no use, thousands of millions of divided people cannot do anything either. However, if these seven hundred million, if only four hundred million of them, two hundred million of them, were to unite together, join hands in brotherhood together, protect each other's borders, protect their own boundaries, if they were to unite in the Islamic community which is common to us all, in the religion of monotheism which is common to us all, in the Islamic interests that we share, then the Jews would no longer covet Palestine and India would no longer have designs on Kashmir. «9» That is why they don't let you unite. The hands that want to take your resources away from you, that want to take your wealth free of charge, that want to plunder both your underground resources and those that lie above the ground, they won't let Iraq and Iran, Iran and Egypt, Turkey and Iran unite together. They won't let them join forces.
It is the duty of the leaders to sit down together and reach a mutual understanding. They should protect their own borders; each one should preserve their boundaries and territorial integrity then join forces against that foreign enemy who causes you so much harm. There is a group of thieving Jews in Palestine who have kept more than a million Muslims dispersed for ten years, more than ten years, and have occupied Islamic lands. All the Muslim leaders do is mourn over their plight, but if they unite, how can this bunch of thieving Jews take Palestine from you and drive the Muslims out of Palestine while you look on helplessly? If they unite, how can the poor, wretched Hindus take our dear Kashmir from us while the Muslims look on helplessly?
These matters are all too clear, but sometimes one needs reminding of them. The leaders themselves know these things, but they should give them more thought. They should sit down together in meetings; they should come together, reflect on these matters and put aside these petty differences. Islam is now in your hands. The heads of Islam, the kings of Islam, the presidents and the shaykhs of Islam, those who have leadership in Islam should realize that God, the Blessed and Exalted, has given them this leadership and now they have a responsibility. Becoming the head of a nation, the leader of a people carries with it a responsibility for those people, for the life of the people, for what happens to those people.

Protecting the wealth of Muslims

Wealth lies in the hands of the East. Oil, this important resource, is in the hands of the East, in the hands of the Muslims- that which lies in Islamic lands. The world has progressed because of these important reserves of oil. Others need this oil. Every country which has progressed has done so through these reserves, every country which has won a war has done so because of oil. These oil reserves are in your hands. Praise be to God, Iraq has oil. Praise be to God, Iran has oil; Kuwait has oil; Hijaz has oil. This is one of the astounding things, the oil is in the hands of the Muslims so others should come and bow down before you, they should kiss your hands, kiss your feet and buy these reserves at the highest price; you shouldn't bow to them. God willing you don't. The wealth lies in your hands, they should be the ones who flatter you, but unfortunately we see that this is not the case. The imperialists have dealt with this matter, they have deceived some countries into thinking that they should flatter them, that they should pay them compliments and offer them something so that they come and take their wealth away (as they have done in other areas of the world). This is distressing.

Supremacy lies in the unity of expression

As long as there is no unity, as long as the heads of Islam don't create unity, as long as they don't think about the misfortunes of the Muslim nations, about the problems that Islam and the laws of Islam have to contend with, about the alienation of Islam and the Holy Qur'an, they cannot have sovereignty. They should think, they should act so they find supremacy. If they consider this matter, if they act on it, then they will become masters of the world. If they introduce Islam to the world as it truly is, and if they put it into practice as it should be, then leadership will be yours, greatness will be yours." Greatness belongs to God, His Messenger and to the believers". «10»

The responsibility of the `ulama' of Islam

So far I have spoken about that group, which constitutes our political leaders. The other group which also bears a responsibility is the `ulama' of Islam and the great maraji`. Their responsibility is very great, extremely great, perhaps in one way the responsibility of the `ulama' of Islam is greater than that of anyone else. It is up to them to introduce the Islam that they know to the world. Of course we don't have the means to do this, and this too is due to our incompetence. We don't have the means, all the means are in the hands of others. The Muslims and the `ulama', the true Muslims and true `ulama' that is, don't have the means to propagate Islam and tell the world what Islam really is. You have such a good commodity and you cannot tell the world about it. The Christians, on the other hand, have spread the word of their Gospel, and you are aware of its contents, it is not an original account of the life and sayings of Jesus. They have spread the word of a false gospel «11» to the whole world and their missionaries have traveled all over the world preaching its message. It is said that as the Islamic countries, those countries which were under the yoke of imperialism, one by one in recent years broke free from the imperialist's grasp, «12» so the Pope's missionaries entered these countries and began to convert the people there to Christianity. Yet we, even in our own communities cannot do this, we cannot present the laws of Islam as they truly are even to our own society. We do not take our debates beyond the bounds of the book on ritual purity or the book on khums «13» or whatever. We don't talk about the politics of Islam. We don't talk about the divine ordinances of Islam. Not being able to implement the divine ordinances does not mean that we shouldn't present them to the world. We should propagate them. The world should know that Islam has a program.
Islam has a program for everything, for all kinds of life. Who should introduce this other than the `ulama'? The `ulama' of Islam (may God increase their number) go through much trouble (for Islam) and endure many hardships, nevertheless their responsibility demands more from them than this. God, the Blessed and Exalted, has given might to the `ulama'; He has given them greatness; men listen to them; nations obey them. Their position brings with it responsibility; just as the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his descendants) had responsibility and rose up for his responsibility, so too they must rise up for their responsibility. They should introduce Islam and Islamic laws as they truly are, not that Islam which is in the hands of a few pseudo-saints and consists of just a book of prayers. «14» We should tell the world about this great commodity and about the progressive laws that we have. We don't need to refer to anybody else's laws. We've got laws for everything. Islam has prescribed man's duties; it has laid down the laws. The Muslims do not need to follow anybody else's laws. Now our youth, these young people in the universities, whether here, in Iran or in other countries, they don't know what true Islam is, or they don't even know what Islam is at all. They don't perceive Islam as being anything other than namaz and a few laws for ritual purity and so on. They think that if they want to become practicing Muslims and act according to Islamic precepts, there is nothing for them to act on. They believe this because Islam has not been presented properly. They ask:" What program does Islam have for us to act on? Such and such a group has a program, such and such a creed has a program, it has a program for life and we want a program for life, but Islam is just something individual between man and God, the Blessed and Exalted, and nothing more than this. Islam has no program for us to act on." They think this because they don't know Islam. They have no knowledge of the laws of Islam; they think Islam has no program for life. It is up to the `ulama' of Islam to rectify this. Of course they can't do it by themselves because of the problems they have, but it is their responsibility to set this matter right. They must explain Islam, all aspects of Islam, all doctrines of Islam, all ordinances of Islam, to the world. They should write and publish books concerning the laws of Islam. If they are successful in securing a radio program for themselves to convey their message, then they should use it to present Islam accurately to the world, so the world will understand what we have (in Islam), and even though we have this, still we live as we do. This is a great responsibility on the shoulders of the distinguished `ulama' (may God elevate their word). And you, the distinguished religious scholars and young `ulama', also have responsibility. The responsibility of the future of Islam is on your shoulders, and it is a very heavy responsibility.

Self-purification

You should begin from now to meet this responsibility; these young sixteen-year-old men, these twenty-year-old men who are studying in the religious schools, in all schools, should begin from now, in accordance with the will of God, in accordance with the divine commands. They should be such that for each step they take for the acquisition of knowledge, they take one for self-reform and moral purification. If, God forbid, there is an `alim who has not reformed himself, not purified himself; if, God forbid, there is an `alim who is not as Islam requires him to be, then this is more of a loss than a benefit. All the false religions which have been invented or created were founded by educated people, people who were educated in the religious schools but who had not purified themselves. If you take note, you will see that all the heads of false religions are from amongst those who have studied, who are clergymen, but those who have not purified themselves. «15»

A glance at Imam `Ali's conduct

This place is in the sanctuary of Hadrat Amir [Imam `Ali], may God's peace be upon him. Being here in the holy land of Najaf, in the sanctuary of Hadrat Amir, may God's peace be upon him, also carries with it many responsibilities. Just being here in Najaf is different than, for example, being in Kuwait, Tehran or Baghdad. Being in Najaf is itself something else, it carries with it responsibility. One should look at what conditions Hadrat Amir, may God's peace be upon him, lived under; how he conducted himself in private and in public. One should think about the life of Hadrat Amir, may God's peace be upon him. One should take note of all the troubles he went through for Islam, how many times he was wounded, how much he suffered, how many times he fought in battle, how thirsty he went. One should consider these things. One such Islam has been entrusted to us, has been entrusted to you gentlemen. You have a responsibility. God forbid that in your quest for knowledge you think to comprehend the subtleties of the religious sciences but overlook spiritual refinement. Reform yourselves; purify yourselves through the teachings of Allah, through the laws of Allah. If you do not do this, then knowledge is of no use. If there is no purification, then that light which God, the Blessed and Exalted, places in the hearts of those He pleases will not be placed. «16»
 

Purification for understanding the divine light

That knowledge which brings illumination, that light which God, the Blessed and Exalted, grants, calls for expertise. It will not be granted to just any heart. Not every heart is worthy of it. If one does not purify himself, if one does not empty his heart of ugly morals, does not correct his vile deeds, if one does not turn to God and does not surrender his whole heart to Him, God the Blessed and Exalted will not place this light in his heart. This is not vain talk. You cannot turn around and say:" No, I know the intricacies of the religious sciences so I'm all right." No, many knew the intricacies of religious sciences. Ghazzali «17» knew them very well. Abou Hanifah also knew them well. «18» There are many people who know the intricacies of the religious sciences better than any, yet God the Blessed and Exalted has not placed that light in their hearts. This light calls for purification, for suffering and self-discipline. Gentlemen, you have come here and joined this group, now you have to discipline yourselves, you have to take pains, you have to observe your duties, and you have to call your soul to account. «19» In the evening, when you have finished your studies, late at night, consider how many wrong deeds, God forbid, you carried out that day; God willing there won't be any. Consider how many times, God forbid, you spoke ill of someone that day; how many times you were impudent to the religious scholars. Do you realize what it means before God if one word of insolence is spoken to the maraji` of Islam? One has openly waged war with God! They are the friends [awliya] «20» of God.
For every step taken in the quest for knowledge, there should be at least one step taken towards moral purification, towards strengthening one's faith, towards establishing faith in one's heart. These matters need thinking about; they call for self-examination and guarding against evil. You gentlemen should be on your guard; you should guard yourselves against evil from morning till night. Man's soul is rebellious, if it is neglected for one moment, God forbid, it will draw the human being towards unbelief not just sinfulness. If the human being is neglectful, Satan won't be satisfied with his moral depravity, he wants man's unbelief. His ultimate goal is to create unbelief. It begins with small sins which gradually grow into bigger sins until eventually it reaches the stage when, God forbid, it turns the human being away from Islam. You should be on your guard. From the minute you wake up in the morning, from when the call to prayer[ adhan ]is made, or, God willing, even before that, you should be on your guard against evil. In these gatherings you have, whether with two people, four people, ten or a hundred people, you should guard yourselves against committing evil acts. Respect you elders, respect your friends, and respect the believers. You should not have an evil tongue, God forbid. You should not create problems and arguments. If you think that someone is doing something that in your opinion he shouldn't be doing or he does not do something that you believe he should do, take him as being correct in his course of action or lack of action as the case may be. One should not, without giving the matter due attention, be insolent, God forbid, to a believer, a Muslim, a religious student, a seeker of knowledge, let alone a religious scholar or a marja`. One should guard oneself against doing such things. One should be careful and observe all these points if one is to be favored by God.

Purification while still young

Later on you will have a weighty responsibility. If you become the `alim of a city, you have responsibility for that city. God willing, if you become the `alim of a country, you have responsibility for that country. If you become the marja` of an Islamic community, you have responsibility for that community. You should begin now laying the foundations for the time that you will carry out this responsibility and fulfill your obligation. From now you should think about this. Don't say:" Well no, we'll study our lessons now and later on, God willing, when we are older, we will turn to moral purification." This is not possible. You can reform yourselves while you are young, but if, God forbid, you do not begin to purify yourselves now, then you will find it very difficult to do so when you are old, when your will power is weak and the enemy strong. As man's age advances, his will power weakens and the army of Satan in his heart becomes strong. Then it will be impossible to purify oneself, and even if it were possible, it would be very difficult. You should begin now, begin while you are young. Every step you take now is towards the grave. There is no time to waste; there is no reason to hold back. Every minute which passes of your honorable lives takes you a little bit closer to the grave, to the place where you will be asked questions, where you will be called to account. You should not neglect this task for you are getting closer to death. No one has given you a guarantee that you will live for a hundred and twenty years. We don't have a hundred and twenty years, maybe one dies at twenty-five, maybe at fifty, maybe sixty, perhaps, God forbid, just now. There is no guarantee. You should think about this. You should guard yourself against evil. You should purify your morals, God willing purify them even more than they now are. Act according to the teachings of Islam, according to the laws of Islam, so that, God willing, you will be favored by God and, under the pure dome of the shrine of Imam `Ali (may God's peace be upon him), you will be granted the light of that knowledge which has the approval of God, that knowledge which is light, that knowledge which brings you close to God, the Blessed and Exalted. This knowledge calls for self-discipline and sacrifice. You are already making sacrifices, so add this one to the others.
I pray to Almighty God that He grant you success (the audience replies with "Amen"). I pray to Almighty God that He grant glory and greatness to Islam and the Muslims ("Amen"). I pray to Almighty God that He grant glory and greatness to the maraji` of Islam ("Amen"). I pray to Almighty God for the long life of the maraji` of Islam ("Amen"). I pray to Almighty God for the moral purification of the students ("Amen").
«۱»- " Word" in the Qur'an has been used for various meanings, among them: the promise of truth; monotheism; Islamic call. Refer to the translation of the commentary of Al-Mizan, vol.۶, p.۹۱ and vol.۱۴, p.۱۸۸. «۲»- Heraclius the First (circa ۵۷۵-۶۴۱ CE) defeated Phocas the Byzantine (Eastern Roman Empire) emperor in ۶۱۰ CE and succeeded him as emperor. Initially, Heraclius was defeated in his war with the Persians and lost Syria, Palestine and Egypt. However, he mustered his army and once again attacked the Persians and retrieved his lost lands. The war between the Sasanian (Sassanid) and Byzantine empires ended with the death of Chosroes Parviz, the Persian king. In the last years of his reign, Heraclius remained in his palace eventually dying in ۶۴۱ CE.After the rise of Islam, in ۶۲۸ and ۶۲۹ CE, the Prophet began to disseminate the message of Islam outside of Arabia and to invite the kings and leaders of the neighboring countries to Islam. For example, the Most Noble Messenger in the letters that he wrote to the Byzantine emperor and the king of Persia asked them to free the servants of God and allow them to worship the one God who has no partner and is the True Monarch. The letter that the Prophet sent to the emperor Heraclius read thus:" In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. From Muhammad the Prophet of God to Heraclius the Great Emperor of Rome. Greetings to him who is the follower of righteous guidance. Verily, I bid you to hear the divine call of Islam. Turn to Islam so that you may be saved and God rewards you both in this world and the Hereafter." Say: O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you that we worship none but God and ascribe no partner unto Him and that none of us shall take others for lords besides Him. And if they turn away then say: `Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered unto Him'."[Italics are from Sourah Al-i `Imran (The Family of `Imran) ۳:۶۴. Refer to Tarikh-e Ya`qoubi, p.۴۴۳]. «۳»- The third Muslim century saw the compilation of the various Sunni collections of hadiths (sayings or traditions of the Prophet) into six books recognized as containing authentic or" sound" hadiths and which have since become standard. Of these six collections, referred to as as-Sihah as-Sittah, the" Six Authentic Collections", the most famous and most authoritative is that of Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Bukhari (۸۱۰-۷۰ CE), Sahih al-Bukhari. Bukhari, who was a Persian, selected out of the ۶۰۰,۰۰۰ traditions he collected from ۱,۰۰۰ shaykhs in the course of sixteen years of travel and labor in Persia, Iraq, Syria, the Hijaz and Egypt some ۷۳۹۷ traditions which he classified according to subject-matter such as prayer, pilgrimage and jihad. Bukhari's tomb outside of Samarqand is still visited by pilgrims today. «۴»- After the conclusion of the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyyah which ensured a period of peace between the Muslims and their enemies, the Prophet of Islam sent letters to the kings and rulers inviting them to embrace Islam. The letters of the Prophet were divided into several categories. One category contains his letters to the kings and princes of different countries, amongst them the four letters of the Prophet of Islam to the rulers of the day: Chosroes Parviz, the Shah of Persia; Heraclius, the Roman Emperor; the Negus (Najashi) of Abyssinia; and Cyrus (al-Muqawqis) the Egyptian ruler. «۵»- In Turkey there are two museums called Istanbul Museum and Ankara Museum which were established in ۱۸۴۶ and ۱۹۲۳, respectively. They contain many historical artifacts and works of art. In ۱۹۶۴, Imam visited these two museums. When he first arrived in Turkey, Imam began to learn the Turkish language by the teach-yourself method and on the third day of his exile he visited the mosques, historical centers and other parts of Ankara. Imam's visits were made under the watchful eye of the Iranian and Turkish security agents. Toward the end of his period of exile in Turkey and while visiting some parts of the city of Izmir, Imam Khomeini saw the graves of forty clergymen. When he asked his Turkish companion the reason for their deaths, he was told that these clergymen were executed on the orders of Ataturk because they opposed his policies and defended Islam. Imam refers to this subject in his later speeches. «۶»- Takwini: meaning" ontological command". Philosophers and theologians distinguish this, which refers to the laws of creation and which all must obey by the very nature of things, from the" legislative [tashri`i] command," which refers to the laws set down by God in revelation and which man can obey or disobey according to his own free will. The" ontological command" is referred to in such verses as:" His command, when He desires a thing, is to say to it" Be" and it is." Sourah Ya-Sin ۳۶:۸۱. «۷»- The abbreviation,"s", stands for the Arabic invocative phrase, s allallahu `alayhi wa alihi wa sallam [may God's salutation and peace be upon him and his progeny], which is used after the name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s). «۸»- Seven hundred million is the estimated number of Muslims in the world at the time of the speech. The exact number of Muslims in the world is not known. Statistics on this are in no way accurate because in some countries the Muslim population has not yet been counted; in some other countries people cannot reveal their religious convictions; in a number of countries the enumerators try to present the number of Muslims as being less than it really is for political or ideological reasons. In Europe and America only the sex, age and occupation of the people in the census are often taken into consideration, no interest being shown in their religious convictions. Therefore, it cannot be said with certainty how many Muslims live in those countries. In countries like America and India, converts to Islam are also not considered in the census. Whatever, the number of Muslims in the world exceeds one billion and without a doubt over the past decade that figure has been on the rise. «۹»- Kashmir is situated in north-west India and neighbors Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is a mountainous region of great natural beauty and fertile land covering an area of ۲۴۲ square kilometers and with a population of about five million people. The majority of Kashmiris are Muslim and because they converse mostly in the Persian language Kashmir is also known as" Iran Minor". Before colonization by the British, Kashmir had an independent government, but at the time of the British assault on India, this country was also occupied and until ۱۹۴۷ was controlled by the British. After the division of the Indian subcontinent into two independent states of Pakistan (Muslim) and India (Hindu), the state of Kashmir with a ۷۰ Muslim population was supposed to be incorporated into Pakistan, however, India would not relinquish it and this annexation did not take place. Consequently, in ۱۹۴۹ Kashmir was partitioned, the north-west area becoming Azad Kashmir[ Free Kashmir ]controlled by Pakistan, and the remainder being incorporated into India as the State of Jammu and Kashmir. However, the dispute over Kashmir did not end with partition and both Pakistan and India continued to lay claim to the other's portion. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, against his moral inclinations, opposed the vote of the United Nations Security Council which recommended that the future of Kashmir be determined by a democratic referendum. Nehru approved the laws that the Parliament of Kashmir, which was an artificial Parliament, had ratified calling for union with India (۱۹۵۷). «۱۰»- Sourah Munafiqoun (The Hypocrites) ۶۳:۸.  «۱۱»- After the death of Jesus, many of his followers began to record accounts of his life and teachings and these were called Gospels. However, the only known surviving Gospel written by a disciple of Jesus, that is, by a man who spent most of his time in the actual company of Jesus during the three years in which he was delivering his message, is the Gospel of Barnabas. This Gospel was accepted as a canonical Gospel in the churches of Alexandria until ۳۲۵ CE when the famous Council of Nicea was held and the doctrine of the Trinity was declared to be the official doctrine of the Pauline Church. One of the consequences of this decision was that out of the three hundred or so Gospels extant at that time, four were chosen as the official Gospels of the Church; these were the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John which the Christians of today follow. The remaining Gospels, including the Gospel of Barnabas, were ordered to be destroyed completely. An edict was issued stating that anyone found in possession of an unauthorized Gospel would be put to death. This was the first well-organized attempt to remove all the records of Jesus' original teachings, whether in human or book form, which contradicted the doctrine of the Trinity. In the case of the Gospel of Barnabas, these attempts were not entirely successful and mention of its continued existence has been made up to the present day. It has been banned by the Popes over the centuries and is included in the list of Apocryphal[ hidden from the people ]and forbidden books. Those who have studied the Evangelium Barnabe remark on the fullness of its account of Jesus' life and teachings and how different this account is from that given in the four accepted Gospels. The Gospel of Barnabas declares the unity of God, foretells the coming of the Prophet of Islam and states that Christ was not crucified by the Romans but that Judas, the betrayer of Christ, was transformed by the Creator to resemble Jesus and was crucified in his stead. In the Gospels accepted today, many of the laws and injunctions are ignored, except for a few cases, and the main message contained in them is to obey God and His commandments, refrain from sin, to be kind and humble, not to be proud, to boast or be unjust. For more information on this subject, refer to The Gospel of Barnabas and Jesus, A Prophet of Islam by Muhammad `Ata ur-Rahim. «۱۲»- Some of the Islamic countries which have freed themselves from the direct domination of foreigners and have apparently regained their independence in the last half a century are listed: Algeria, Tunisia, Chad, Djibouti, Sudan, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, from French colonialism; Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Gambia, Maldives, Sierra Leone, Oman, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nigeria, South Yemen, from British colonialism; Libya from Italian colonialism; and Somalia from British and Italian colonialism. «۱۳»- Khums: literally means one-fifth. According to the Shi`ah school of jurisprudence [fiqh], this one-fifth tax is obligatorily levied on every adult Muslim who is financially secure and has surplus in his income out of annual savings, net commercial profits, and all movable and immovable properties which are not commensurable with the needs and social standing of the person. Khums is divided into two equal parts: the Share of the Imam [sahm al-Imam] and the Share of the Sayyids/Sadat (descendants of the Prophet) [sahm as-Sadat]. Accordingly, the Share of the Imam is to be paid to the living Imam, and in the period of Occultation, to the most learned living mujtahid who is the giver's marja` at-taqlid [Source of Emulation]. The other half of the khums, the Share of the Sayyids/Sadat, is to be given to needy pious Sayyids who lack the resources for one's year respectable living in consonance with their various statuses. For more information, see Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi, Khums: An Islamic Tax, http://www.al-islam.org/beliefs/practices/khums.html. «۱۴»- Mafatih al-Jinan [Keys to the Gardens of Paradise]: the standard manual of Shi`i devotion containing the supplicatory prayers of the Imams, as well as formulae for recitation at particular times or during visitation of the tombs of the Imams. Its compiler, Shaykh `Abbas Qummi, was a scholar of vast learning who died in Najaf in ۱۹۴۰. «۱۵»- Refer to the biographies of people such as Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab, the founder of Wahhabism; Shaykh Zaynuddin Ahmad Ihsa'i, the leader of the Shaykhi sect and Sayyid Kazim Rashti, his successor. «۱۶»- It refers to the hadith:" Knowledge is a light which God places in the heart of those He wishes." Al-Mahajjat al-Bayda', vol.۵, p.۴۵. «۱۷»- al-Islam Abou Hamid Muhammad ibn Ghazzali at-Tousi was born in Iran in ۱۰۵۸ at Tous, Khorasan, where he died in ۱۱۱۱. Al-Ghazzali is recognized by many as a great theologian of Islam and the final authority for Sunni orthodoxy. Starting his religious life as orthodox, al- Ghazzali soon turned to Sufism. He spent many years roaming from place to place before eventually going to Baghdad to preach and teach. It was there that he composed what many see as his masterpiece, Ihya' `Uloum ad-Din [The Revivification of the Sciences of Religion]. His other well-known works include: Fatihat al-`Uloum; Tahafut al-Falasifah; Al-Iqtisad fi'l-I`tiqad and Kimiya-ye Sa`adat [Alchemy of Happiness] which is Ihya' `Uloum ad-Din re-presented on a smaller scale for Persian readers. Al-Ghazzali was, however, among a number of classical Sunni authorities who attempted to legitimize both the hereditary caliphate and the usurpation of power by military dynasties, by means of their political theories. The influence of these theories has far outlived the circumstances that produced them and it continues to affect the political attitudes of Sunni Muslims, although it is now diminishing. «۱۸»- Al-Nu`man ibn Thabit (۶۶۹-۷۶۷ CE), also known as Abou Hanifah the founder of the Hanafi school of thought, was of Iranian origin and was born in Koufah. Although a merchant by profession, Abou Hanifah learnt Islamic jurisprudence [fiqh] in his youth and became an influential jurist. However, he regarded the Qur'an as being created and he did not attach special importance to the hadiths [sayings and traditions] of the Prophet rejecting many (about four hundred) and only accepting a few as being" sound" or correct and thus applicable. He insisted on the right of qiyas or analogical deduction in his teachings, leading to what we call legal fiction. In all fields, he exaggerated some points and ignored others. Abou Hanifah was a student of Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (`a) for two years. One day Imam as-Sadiq found Abou Hanifah's answer to a question on Islamic jurisprudence to be incorrect. He reproached him and said:" Woe unto you. What is your reference? Fear God and do not apply analogical deduction based on your own reasoning." «۱۹»- Calling one's soul to account is examining one's deeds, one's thoughts and one's heart in order to purify one's soul. Imam Khomeini, in his ethical and mystical work, Sharh-e Chehel Hadith [An Exposition of Forty Hadiths], cites the examination of one's soul as well as binding oneself with the resolve not to do anything against God's commands [musharatah] and guarding against evil [muraqabah] as necessary acts of a seeker of truth who is battling with his self [mujahid]. «۲۰»- The word awliya' has been retained here because of the depth of its meaning. Normally translated as helpers, friends, guardians, administrators, Hamid Algar in his book Islam and Revolution p.۳۶۱, n.۲, informs us that the word awliya' also refers to those who possess the quality of intrinsic wilayah i. e. governance. In Shi`i belief, they are the foremost among the prophets and the Twelve Imams who succeeded Prophet Muhammad (s). The word awliya' indicates primarily their spiritual rank, whereas the word Imam designates their function of leadership. According to some theologians, the awliya' are those whose belief is sound, who perform their religious duties and who as a result have attained proximity to God. In the general sense that can be deduced from the Qur'an, ۱۰:۶۲-۶۳:" Verily the friends [awliya'] of God- those who believe and guard against evil- shall suffer no fear nor shall they grieve," it means" friends."


امام خمینی (ره)؛ 23 آبان 1344
 

دیدگاه ها

نظر دهید

اولین دیدگاه را به نام خود ثبت کنید: